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55863An aluminum calorimeter with a mass of 100 g contains 250 g of water. The calorimeter and water are in thermal equilibrium at 10.0°C. Two metallic blocks are placed into the water. One is a 50.0-g piece of copper at 80.0°C. The other block has a mass of 70.0 g and is originally at a temperature of 100°C. The entire system stabilizes at a final temperature of 20.0°C. (a) Determine the specific heat of the unknown sample. (b) Guess the material of the unknown, using the data in Table 20.1. doc
55864Although the average speed of gas molecules in thermal equilibrium at some temperature is greater than zero, the average velocity is zero. Explain why this statement must be true. doc
55865An air rifle shoots a lead pellet by allowing high-pressure air to expand, propelling the pellet down the rifle barrel. Because this process happens very quickly, no appreciable thermal conduction occurs, and the expansion is essentially adiabatic. Suppose that the rifle starts by admitting to the barrel 12.0 cm3 of compressed air, which behaves as an ideal gas with y = 1.40. The air expands behind a 1.10-g pellet and pushes on it as a piston with cross-sectional area 0.030 0 cm2, as the pellet moves 50.0 cm along the gun barrel. The pellet emerges with muzzle speed 120 m/s. Use the result of problem 53 to find the initial pressure required. doc
55866Air in a thundercloud expands as it rises. If its initial temperature is 300 K and no energy is lost by thermal conduction on expansion, what is its temperature when the initial volume has doubled? doc
55867Air (a diatomic ideal gas) at 27.0°C and atmospheric pressure is drawn into a bicycle pump that has a cylinder with an inner diameter of 2.50 cm and length 50.0 cm. The down stroke adiabatically compresses the air, which reaches a gauge pressure of 800 kPa before entering the tire (Fig. P21.26). Determine (a) The volume of the compressed air and (b) The temperature of the compressed air. (c) What If? The pump is made of steel and has an inner wall that is 2.00 mm thick. Assume that 4.00 cm of the cylinder’s length is allowed to come to thermal equilibrium with the air. What will be the increase in wall temperature? doc
55868After food is cooked in a pressure cooker, why is it very important to cool off the container with cold water before attempting to remove the lid? doc
55869(a) Use the equation of state for an ideal gas and the definition of the coefficient of volume expansion, in the form &#946; = (1/V) dV/dT, to show that the coefficient of volume expansion for an ideal gas at constant pressure is given by &#946; = 1/T, where T is the absolute temperature. (b) What value does this expression predict for &#946; at 0°C? Compare this result with the experimental values for helium and air in Table 19.1. Note that these are much larger than the coefficients of volume expansion for most liquids and solids doc
55870(a) Show that the speed of sound in an ideal gas is doc
55871(a) Show that the density of an ideal gas occupying a volume V is given by p = PM/RT, where M is the molar mass. (b) Determine the density of oxygen gas at atmospheric pressure and 20.0°C doc
55872(a) Show that 1 Pa = 1 J/m3. (b) Show that the density in space of the translational kinetic energy of an ideal gas is 3P/2. doc
55873(a) In air at 0°C, a 1.60-kg copper block at 0°C is set sliding at 2.50 m/s over a sheet of ice at 0°C. Friction brings the block to rest. Find the mass of the ice that melts. To describe the process of slowing down, identify the energy input Q , the work input W, the change in internal energy &#916;Eint, and the change in mechanical energy &#916;K for the block and also for the ice. (b) A 1.60-kg block of ice at 0°C is set sliding at 2.50 m/s over a sheet of copper at 0°C. Friction brings the block to rest. Find the mass of the ice that melts. Identify Q, W, &#916;Eint, and &#916;K for the block and for the metal sheet during the process. (c) A thin 1.60-kg slab of copper at 20°C is set sliding at 2.50 m/s over an identical stationary slab at the same temperature. Friction quickly stops the motion. If no energy is lost to the environment by heat, find the change in temperature of both objects. Identify Q, W, &#916;Eint, and &#916;K for each object during the process. doc
55874(a) If it has enough kinetic energy, a molecule at the surface of the Earth can “escape the Earth’s gravitation,” in the sense that it can continue to move away from the Earth forever, as discussed in Section 13.7. Using the principle of conservation of energy, show that the minimum kinetic energy needed for “escape” is mgRE, where m is the mass of the molecule, g is the free-fall acceleration at the surface, and RE is the radius of the Earth. (b) Calculate the temperature for which the minimum escape kinetic energy is ten times the average kinetic energy of an oxygen molecule. doc
55875(a) How many atoms of helium gas fill a balloon having a diameter of 30.0 cm at 20.0°C and 1.00 atm? (b) What is the average kinetic energy of the helium atoms? (c) What is the root-mean-square speed of the helium atoms? doc
55876(a) Find the number of moles in one cubic meter of an ideal gas at 20.0°C and atmospheric pressure. (b) For air, Avogadro’s number of molecules has mass 28.9 g. Calculate the mass of one cubic meter of air. Compare the result with the tabulated density of air doc
55877(a) Determine the work done on a fluid that expands from i to f as indicated in Figure P20.24. (b) What If? How much work is performed on the fluid if it is compressed from f to i along the same path? doc
55878(a) Derive an expression for the buoyant force on a spherical balloon, submerged in water, as a function of the depth below the surface, the volume of the balloon at the surface, the pressure at the surface, and the density of the water. (Assume water temperature does not change with depth) (b) Does the buoyant force increase or decrease as the balloon is submerged? (c) At what depth is the buoyant force half the surface value? doc
55879A 75.0-kg cross-country skier moves across the snow (Fig. P20.53). The coefficient of friction between the skis and the snow is 0.200. Assume that all the snow beneath his skis is at 0°C and that all the internal energy generated by friction is added to the snow, which sticks to his skis until it melts. How far would he have to ski to melt 1.00 kg of snow? doc
55880A 745i BMW car can brake to a stop in a distance of 121 ft. from a speed of 60.0 mi/h. To brake to a stop from a speed of 80.0 mi/h requires a stopping distance of 211 ft. What is the average braking acceleration for? (a) 60 mi/h to rest, (b) 80 mi/h to rest, (c) 80 mi/h to 60 mi/h? Express the answers in mi/h/s and in m/s2 doc
55881A 670-kg meteorite happens to be composed of aluminum. When it is far from the Earth, its temperature is -15°C and it moves with a speed of 14.0 km/s relative to the Earth. As it crashes into the planet, assume that the resulting additional internal energy is shared equally between the meteor and the planet, and that all of the material of the meteor rises momentarily to the same final temperature. Find this temperature. Assume that the specific heat of liquid and of gaseous aluminum is 1170 J/kg °C. doc
55882A 50.0-g superb all traveling at 25.0 m/s bounces off a brick wall and rebounds at 22.0 m/s. A high-speed camera records this event. If the ball is in contact with the wall for 3.50 ms, what is the magnitude of the average acceleration of the ball during this time interval? (Note: 1 ms = 10-3 s) doc
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